Types of Cement


In simple words we can say that cement is a binder which is used in construction industry as a building material.Joseph Aspdin took out a patent in 1824 for “Portland Cement,” a material he produced by firing finely-ground clay and limestone until the limestone was calcined. He called it Portland Cement because the concrete made from it looked like Portland stone, a widely-used building stone in England.
Cement is the second largest material after water which is used widely in construction industry. Various types of cement have been invented as per requirement. Let’s understand types of cement and its components.

  1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
  2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
  3. Rapid Hardening Cement
  4. Quick setting cement
  5. Low Heat Cement
  6. Sulphates resisting cement
  7. High Alumina Cement
  8. White Cement
  9. Coloured cement
  10. Air Entraining Cement
  11. Expansive cement
  12. Hydrophobic cement
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

In usual construction work, Ordinary Portland Cement is widely used. The composition of Ordinary Portland Cement:

  • Argillaceous or silicates of alumina (clay and shale)
  • Calcareous or calcium carbonate (limestone, chalk and marl)
Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

Pozzolans are natural or synthetic materials that contain silica in reactive forms. It reacts with calcium hydroxide generated by hydrating cement to form additional cementations materials when it is finely divided. The composition of Portland Pozzolana Cement:

  • OPC clinker
  • Gypsum
  • Pozzolanic Materials (Fly ash, volcanic ash, and Calcined clay or silica fumes.)
Rapid Hardening Cement

When finely grounded Tri-calcium silicate (C3S) is present in OPC with higher content, it gains strength more quickly than OPC. This type of OPC is called Rapid Hardening Cement. It’s initial Setting Time 30 minutes and Final Setting Time 600 minutes.

Quick Setting Cement

Quick setting cement is the cement which sets in a very short time. The initial setting time is 5 minutes and the final setting time is 30 minutes. The composition of Quick Setting Cement:

  • Clinker
  • Aluminium sulphate (1% to 3% by weight of clinker)
Low Heat Cement

It produce low heat of hydration during setting. Some chemical composition of Ordinary Portland Cement is modified to reduce the heat of hydration. The chemical composition of low heat cement:

  • A low percentage (5%) of tricalcium aluminate (C3A)
  • A higher percentage (46%) of declaim silicate (C2S).
Sulphates resisting cement

Sulphate resisting cement is used to resist sulphate attacks in concrete. Due to the lower percentage of Tricalcium aluminate, the production of calcium sulpho-aluminates gets reduced.

High Alumina Cement

High Alumina Cement(HAC), sometimes known as calcium aluminate cement(CAC) or aluminous cement, is composed of calcium aluminates, unlike Portland cement which is composed of calcium silicates. It is manufactured from limestone or chalk and bauxite.

White Cement

White cement is quite similar to Ordinary Portland Cement except for colour. Amounts of iron oxide and manganese oxide are low in White Cement.

Coloured Cement

To make 5 to 10 percent of suitable pigments are grinded with OPC. Types of pigments are selected according to the desired colour.

Air Entraining Cement

Air-entraining cement is a spatial type of cement which entrains tinny air bubbles in concrete. When water in concrete get frizzed due to low temperature, it expands. When air-entraining cement, the air voids in concrete provides space for water to expand without cracking concrete.

Expansive Cement

In the hydration process, the expansive cement expands its volume. It can be possible to overcome shrinkage loss by using expansive cement.There are three types of expansive cement:

  1. K Type expansive cement
  2. M Type expansive cement
  3. S Type expansive cement
Hydrophobic Cement

Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding Portland cement clinker with a film-forming substances such as oleic acid in order to reduce the rate of deterioration when the cement is stored under unfavourable conditions. It is also known as Hydrographic cement.

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Blog Written by
Shruti Doshi
Technical Officer – Sanghi Cement & Blogger
shrutidoshi.1492@gmail.com


Blog Managed by
Nirav Pandya
Digital Marketing Officer – Sanghi Cement
nirav.pandya@sanghicement.com

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